Estonian
National Defence
2022

Estonia is developing its Defence Forces’ combat ability, firepower and preparedness with the goal of transforming the country’s military in coming years into a force that is even better able to defend Estonia in the face of current security threats.

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Raising the Defence Forces’ Level of Preparedness

In the years ahead, we will be focusing on establishing two fully manned, armed and equipped infantry brigades that are capable of quick response.

1st Infantry Brigade

A mechanized infantry brigade armed with infantry combat vehicles, armoured personnel carriers and self-propelled artillery. Staff located at Tapa.

Self-Propelled Artillery

155 mm self-propelled wide-ranging artillery systems will be procured for the Defence Forces to provide fire support. The details of the procurement will be determined in the next few years.

PASI XA-180EST Armoured Personnel Carriers

The PASI was previously used by solely the Scouts Battalion but now Kalev Infantry Battalion conscripts also train in them, broadening the use of the armoured carriers in the Estonian Defence Forces.

CV9035NL Infantry Combat Vehicles

The years 2016 to 2019 will see 44 CV9035NL infantry combat vehicles and auxiliary vehicles based on the Leopard I tank arrive in Estonia.

Javelin Anti-Tank Missile Systems

The Defence Forces' ability to repel tanks will be increased markedly thanks to the procurement of state of the art Javelin missile batteries for both infantry brigades.

Equipment

In years to come, the brigade’s equipment, weapons and ammunition will be supplemented, increasing the unit’s combat readiness.

2nd Infantry Brigade

The infantry brigade will be developed to full readiness by 2022. Together with the 1st Infantry Brigade, the Defence Forces' firepower and response capability will increase significantly. Staff located at Luunja.

Javelin Anti-Tank Missile Systems

The brigade will be outfitted with modern anti-tank missile systems that will increase the combat power of the Defence Forces.

Equipment

In years to come, the brigade’s equipment, weapons and ammunition will be supplemented, increasing the unit’s combat readiness.

155 mm Howitzers

The 2nd Infantry Brigade will gain 155 mm howitzers in its arsenal.

A Larger Reserve Force

The Defence Forces’ rapid response structure will include over 21,000 members instead of the 18,000 set forth in the last development plan; among them there will be 3,600 active-duty members instead of the current 3,100. All of the reservists trained by the Estonian Defence Forces during compulsory military service are counted toward Estonia’s basic readiness and supplemental reserve; this consists of a total of 60,000 people. By 2022, primary readiness and supplementary reserve will grow to 90,000.

18 000

2013 level

21 000

target for 2022

New Weaponry Will Increase Defence Forces’ Combat Capability

In the years ahead, Estonia will conduct procurements for hundreds of millions of euros of new weaponry and equipment.

CV9035NL Infantry Combat Vehicles

The years 2016 to 2019 will see 44 CV90 infantry combat vehicles and auxiliary vehicles based on the Leopard I tank arrive in Estonia.

Weapons systems 3ATK Bushmaster III 35 mm cannon (effective firing range 4 km, rate of fire 200 rounds per minute)
7.62 mm machine gun
10 fragmentation grenade and smoke grenade launchers
Engine 600 kW Scania DS16 (16-litre V8 diesel engine)
Manufactured 2008-2011 Sweden
Manufacturer BAE Systems Hägglunds AB

Javelin Anti-Tank Missile Systems

The Defence Forces' ability to repel tanks will be increased markedly thanks to the procurement of state of the art Javelin missile batteries for both infantry brigades.

Effective firing range 65 to 2500 metres
Weight of CLU 7 kg, 11 kg with tripod
Missile weight 15.5 kg
Warhead armour piercing 750 mm
Missile guidance system ‘Fire and forget’ – i.e.,missile locks in automatically on target after being fired.
Crew 2
Manufacturer Raytheon & Lockheed Martin
In service since Year 1996

Self-Propelled Artillery

155 mm self-propelled wide-ranging artillery systems are being procured for the Defence Forces to provide fire support.

The Air Force and Navy Will Be Better Equipped to Fulfil Their Functions

The Importance of the Defence League as a Security Provider in Estonia Will Grow

The primary military function of the Defence League will be territorial defence. The objective is to increase the ranks of the Defence League from 22,250 to 30,000 in ten years.

Development plan 2013–2022

22 500

30 000

Defence League members

Year 2013

Comprehensive Development of National Defence

For the first time, the non-military part of the national defence development plan looks at military defence from a broader perspective than purely military defence and assigns all of the major government departments specific national defence functions. This means that the following important areas for national defence will also be developed alongside military defence:

  • Support of the Civilian Sector for Military Defence

    A mobilization information system will be set up, and contracts will start to be concluded with the private sector on stockpiles and services that would, in the event of a mobilization, support the activity of the Defence Forces. Regular exercises will train use of civilian resources.

  • International Activity

    Development of a network of embassies and representations of strategic value to national defence and security policy will continue.

    Domestic Security

    The capability of the Police and Border Guard and the Rescue Board will be developed to stand prepared for ensuring the security of the Estonian population in even the most complicated situations.

  • Vital Services

    Additional electronic capabilities and control systems will be developed, the communication links necessary for functioning society will be strengthened, the capability to repair strategically important railway and highway links will be guaranteed and the medical readiness in time of crisis will be strengthened.

  • Psychological Defence

    Academic expertise in this field will be developed and psychological defence courses will be organised. The capability of government offices to identify hostile propaganda activity will be developed and readiness will be improved for crises with greater communication needs.

National Defence Requires Stable Funding

To make all of the above possible, national defence will need stable funding. Since 2012, Estonian national defence has received funding at a rate of 2% of the gross domestic product. This is the optimum level for allowing Estonian national defence to be planned in a long-term, substantive manner and, ultimately, make the most effective use of taxpayer money.

In the Estonian state budget, the defence budget is one of the lowest expense items, making up about five percent of the entire budget. This is an insurance premium that society can afford, and it helps us guarantee that our country is secure and well-defended.

THE 2015 ESTONIAN STATE BUDGET BY SECTOR
  • 5% National defence €394.1 million
  • 5% Public order and security €424.8 million
  • 12% Economy €1,014.5 million
  • 3% Environment protection €258.4 million
  • 13% Health care €1,106.5 million
  • 3% Leisure time, culture and religion €226.2 million
  • 10% Education €812.7 million
  • 33% Social security €2,858.2 million
  • 17% General government sector services €1,447.9 million